提升孩子英语水平,需要提升4个能力

2020年10月17日17:10:42 68
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最近,有家长问我:

“我家孩子不爱看英文故事或绘本,我应该怎么办?”

孩子不爱阅读英文故事,或者孩子不能完整的看完一本英文故事,这是很多中国孩子存在的问题。

所以,提高孩子的英文阅读水平,走好第一步就很关键。那么,美国家长是如何训练孩子的阅读能力的呢?

其实,在美国家庭里,父母都会非常注重培养孩子的这4种阅读技能,掌握好这些技能,就可以帮孩子打好基础,实现日后的自主阅读。

提升孩子英语水平,需要提升4个能力

1、分辨声音,提高语音意识

所谓的语音意识,就是在孩子听到单词的时候,能明白单词是由不同的音构成的,这就像学中文时,掌握拼音的发音一样。

通过听音辨音的训练,让孩子识别相同的音还是不同的音,从而能够拼出所听到的单词——这就是孩子学习自然拼读的基础。

1)多和孩子说童谣唱儿歌,多和孩子读童书或绘本

2)多和孩子玩文字游戏:

“What starts with the same sound as 'tree'?”

“Do these words sound the same, fish&dish, cake&cat?”

3)和孩子玩“Say it fast, say it slow”的游戏,帮助孩子了解单词的音节。

玩法:比如hot dog这个单词,可以把这个单词的图片打印出来,剪成两部分。家长拿着两部分图片,快速地说“hot-dog”,一边说一边拼成一个图片,让孩子模仿;然后换慢速再来一遍。

等孩子熟悉以后,再逐步增加单词的难度。

提升孩子英语水平,需要提升4个能力

2、观摩书本,培养文字意识

阅读前,要先让孩子认识书,让他们知道:读书上的字要遵循从左到右、从上到下的顺序,让孩子练习翻书页,练习正确地把书拿在手里,引导孩子了解书的构成部分(封面,作者,插画者)。

要培养孩子的文字意识,爸妈们可以这么做——

提升孩子英语水平,需要提升4个能力

1)把孩子抱在怀里,拿本书给孩子读。这样就是给孩子示范如何拿书,如何翻页;

2)在孩子面前故意将书上下颠倒了,看看孩子是否能注意到并纠正你(It's upside down!That's not how we read a book!Oops!哎呀,书拿颠倒了,这不是我们读书的方式。)

3)让孩子练习拿书翻书,在给孩子读书时,也把书交给孩子;

4)选择一些字迹较大的书,读时,用手指头追随着书上的单词文字,让孩子明白这些文字都是具有意义的;

5)给孩子讲讲哪部分是封面(cover),作者(author)和插画师(illustrator)分别是干什么的;

6)对于生活中出现的文字,比如交通标志,可以给孩子读并解释;

7)把孩子的名字写下来贴在孩子的椅子上,孩子的桌子上……孩子们对于自己的名字情有独钟。

 

3、增加词汇量,丰富语言系统

让孩子知道各种物品的名称、情绪的名称、各种概念的说法、能用语言表达自己的想法。怎么能让孩子的语言表达丰富起来,多和孩子说话,多和孩子读书。

1)孩子小的时候,可以把家里物品的名称写在纸上,做成标签贴在上面。

比如把“cup”这个单词贴在杯子上,给孩子说时“this is your cup”“drink from your cup”可以做各种手势帮助孩子理解。孩子长大点了,就可以不用手指着,直接用语言“Please give me your cup”.

2)画出来各种不同表情的脸,并且标记出来,让孩子认识各种各种的情绪;

3)认真倾听孩子所说的话,等孩子说完后,可以添加上更多的细节再反馈给孩子;

4)跟孩子说话时,不要怕孩子听不懂就只使用单一简单词汇,而要丰富自己的语言,比如孩子明白big的含义后,就可以使用large,huge,tall等各种同义词;

5)给孩子读各种不同的书,不用担心里面的词汇太难,孩子就是在阅读中丰富自己的语言词汇。有研究显示,孩子在阅读中学到的语言远远多于和成人对话以及看电视。

 

4、培养兴趣,让阅读不再枯燥

兴趣是最好的老师。在给孩子读书的时候,想方设法让孩子感到有趣、好玩,让阅读成为一种游戏。想实现这一点,6个方法少不了——

1)让孩子自己选择他/她要读的书;

2)和孩子一起,用现有的道具或玩偶,组成简单小剧场,把书中的故事演出来;

3)运用不同的声音(比如模仿各种小动物的叫声,模仿交通工具的马达声等)、不同的音调(低沉或尖声)、不同的语速(快语或慢声)吸引孩子的注意;

4)允许孩子以自己的方式感受书(啃书、翻书页等),如果担心小宝宝撕书,不妨多给他/她提供硬板书;

5)孩子的注意力有限,给孩子读书时“少食多餐”效果更好;

6)阅读不仅仅局限于书,只要孩子感兴趣菜单、超市广告等都可以给孩子读。

 

其实,宝爸宝妈们,你才是孩子最好的阅读陪伴者。所以,多抽出一点时间,陪孩子一起阅读吧。你会发现,原来陪伴的意义,远比你想象的,要大很多。

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